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Plant Cells

Seedling with sunlight

Light & Plants

Learn about the process of photosynthesis and how it is affected by light levels.

Plant Cells with Visible Chloroplasts

Specialized Cells of the Leaf System

Learn about the structure and function of the cells in leaves.

Labo de Heather McFarlane's

Heather E. McFarlane

Assistant Professor & Canada Research Chair in Plant Cell Biology

Heather R. McFarlane is an Assistant Professor & Canada Research Chair in Plant Cell Biology for the University of Toronto.
Coniferous and deciduous trees covered in snow

How Do Trees Survive in Winter?

What adaptations and processes do trees in northern climates have to survive winter?

Tilia stem cross-section

Plant Cell Structures and Functions

Learn about the many different structures that make up plant cells as well as what differentiates plant cells from animal cells.

Leaf and the Sun

Plant Functions

Learn about the important plant functions of photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration

Screen capture from video "The Wacky History of Cell Theory”

The Wacky History of Cell Theory

It took several scientists building on each other’s discoveries to come up with Cell Theory - one of the cornerstones of biology.

Water droplets on succulent leaves

How Do Plants Survive in the Desert?

Plants need to exchange gases and water with their environment as part of photosynthesis. Some plant cells have evolved specifically for this purpose.

DNA "unzipping"

How can I obtain a sample of DNA?

Be a biochemist! Learn how to extract DNA from an onion and find out what DNA looks like.

Massive algal bloom

Eutrophication: Why you should care about pond scum?

When fertilizers from agriculture get into lakes and rivers, big problems can result for aquatic ecosystems, food chains & webs!