Meteorologists are people who analyze and forecast, or predict, the weather. Weather forecasts might be for the general public. There are also special weather forecasts for people like farmers, sailors and pilots.
Meteorologists need a lot of data to predict weather conditions. This information comes from different weather instruments.
Here are some examples of weather instruments:
- Thermometers measure the temperature.
- Barometers measure atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is also called air pressure.
- Hygrometers measure humidity. Humidity is the concentration of water vapour in the air.
- Anemometers measure wind speed. The stronger the wind, the faster the anemometer spins.
- Windsocks measure wind speed and wind direction. You often see them at airports. They help pilots and air traffic controllers choose flight paths.
- Wind vanes measure wind direction. They often have an anemometer attached.
- Rain gauges measure rainfall. Snow gauges measure snowfall.
- Weather balloons are filled with hydrogen or helium gas. They float up into the atmosphere carrying other weather instruments. They gather information on temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure and wind speed.
Did you know?
A rising barometer means atmospheric pressure is high. This usually means sunny and dry conditions are on the way. A falling barometer means atmospheric pressure is low. This usually means stormy or wet weather is on the way.
Meteorologists also interpret maps, photographs and radar data from the ground, from airplanes, and from satellites in space. They use all of this information to make predictions about the weather. These predictions might be for the next few hours. Or they might be for the next seven days.
How do you become a meteorologist?
There are different ways to become a meteorologist. Some people get a university degree in atmospheric science. Some people get a degree in meteorology. Other people get a degree in math or physics.
The weather presenters you see on TV aren’t always meteorologists!
What is a weather station?
Weather stations collect data from weather instruments. There are almost 1 100 weather stations in Canada. Meteorologists can use this information to predict the weather.
Some weather stations are located on land, including along the shore. Others are located offshore, on ships and buoys. Satellites also provide information on the weather.
Did you know?
Alert, Nunavut, is home to the world’s most northern weather station. The station is located 800 km from the nearest town. About 200 people work there!
What is Environment Canada?
In Canada, the government department that makes weather forecasts is called Environment Canada. It collects weather data from various sources. Some examples of sources are: